Environmental Education, Volunteers and Visitors

Changing the world with ‘people power’

By Ted May, General Volunteer

Many environmentally-aware people, including myself, are attracted to Costa Rica because of the awesome biodiversity there. One has opportunity to explore part of a country that houses 5% of the world’s biodiversity in 51,100 km2– mid-way in size between the U.S. state of West Virginia and the European country of Denmark.

Ted May climbing a tree to install an owl box, to create microhabitats to help bird populations.

When I arrived as a volunteer at Osa Conservation this March, I was able to explore part of this area, and—with my limited time and familiarity with “seeing” birds in Costa Rica—I still managed to find more than 135 different bird species.  It was amazing, and delightful in many ways.

But what stands out in my mind the most is the experiences I had with the people at Osa Conservation.  It is incredibly inspiring to see the people power of the many dedicated volunteers, staff and visitors.

Visitors and volunteers assisting with a sunrise patrol with the Sea Turtle Program.

Mariam, Shannon and Dylan teamed up to oversee the Sea Turtle Program. Their dedication is exceptional. Not only do they walk 10-20 km daily (much on the beach), but they also record data to monitor their progress and make exceptional presentations to various publics to help others see not just the beauty of the turtles, but the important roles they play in the global seas (control of sea grass and jellyfish, food source for many others, and so much more).

Marina – who I call the Poison Dart Woman— is conducting research into the fascinating lives of these unique frogs, to help us understand them,and how they can at times serve as barometers to the health of the tropical rainforest ecosystem. Her enthusiasm bubbles over when she shares “her” frogs, excited to be working with fragile and yet widely-recognized critters.

There were many others: Jo from Belgium, the Costa Rican cooks (great local food!), the friendly greeting faces of Lucía and Karla and many other Costa Rican staff.  I also was able to meet some of the visitors there, including an awesome team of people from National Geographic, and some wonderful returning volunteers from varying countries.

Ted May and Andreas Aere collecting fluff from the balsa tree fruit to create beds for orchids.

I was grateful to be able to commit 2.5 weeks of my life helping with various projects in this awesome place. In the process, I learned a lot and was greatly inspired, having met some incredible young people who are investing their lives in our global future – thank you each and all.

So, thank you for allowing me to explore the richness of the Costa Rican diversity; I found it very valuable to be able to interact with a small part of it.  Even more-so, thank you for being able to attract such a rich variety of people there in various roles – people who are working to “change the world” in many ways with Osa Conservation, and who will, I am confident, continue to do so in their lives after Osa.


Uncategorized

Citizen science: Osa communities partner with scientists to reveal answers to nature’s mysteries

Blogpost by Marco Hidalgo-Chaverri, Coordinator of the Ecosystem Resilience and Community Outreach Program

Citizen science is the participation of the general public in scientific research activities. Citizens contribute actively, either through active monitoring or with local knowledge of their environment. This different way of doing science contributes to scientific knowledge through the participation of volunteer and trained citizens who are not usually specialists in the subject to be investigated and who contribute to help solve questions raised in scientific studies.

Community Biological Monitoring Group of Rancho Quemado, training with the Healthy Rivers Program at Osa Conservation. Photo: Marco Hidalgo

It is not a new way of doing science. In fact, it has existed for centuries, since the very beginning of science—from the contributions made by astronomers, to the observation of birds in remote parts of the world.

Citizen science projects allow the public, through their own experience, to understand how scientific research is carried out. Participants find that the process of doing science arises from observation and methods for data collection. People are adequately trained in a non-formal setting, contribute to the collection of data, and—if their curiosity catches on—they might even start their own research.

Coati (Nasua narica) photograph taken to be used in the App iNaturalist. Photo: Marco Hidalgo

These meetings of participation constitute an alliance between scientists and the general public, forming a great work team, answering the great questions about Earth’s biodiversity.

With this goal in mind, Osa Conservation is supporting the Community Biological Monitoring Groups formed in the Osa Peninsula. We are sharing experiences with organized groups in the communities of Rancho Quemado, Dos Brazos del Rio Tigre, Los Planes of Drake and the Alto Laguna Indigenous Territory. With these groups, we are working on the collaborative construction of knowledge through the Osa Camera Trap Network, who lead the collection of data and assist in data analysis. At Osa Conservation, we believe that the participation of communities to support the monitoring of spatio-temporal trends of biodiversity has special importance in the fight to prevent and stop the loss of flora and fauna species that are susceptible to small environmental changes.

Showing the children of the Osa Peninsula fauna in danger of extinction. Photo: Marco Hidalgo

The children of the Osa Peninsula have not been left out in this participatory contribution. Year after year, we have been supporting the Christmas Children’s Bird Count, which is a form of social appropriation of science like no other, since the students of schools and colleges become the main actors of this knowledge construction. The key to this initiative is to take science as an attitude and have the ability to marvel and generate questions with the things or situations we face every day. Our children find a magic in the birds and biodiversity that surrounds them. This information helps analyze traces of climate change and observe climatic phenomena, and these are the same students who will live the solutions.

Community Biological Monitoring Group of Rancho Quemado, visiting the Sea Turtle Program at Osa Conservation. Photo: Marco Hidalgo

In support of this effort of Citizen Science, Osa Conservation is promoting the use of global social networks, which are used by people who like to share images of the nature of the region. We are recommending the iNaturalistapplication, a technological tool that connects people with nature to build participatory citizen science, in order to understand the situation populations of our flora and fauna and the changes that affect different ecosystems. If you or members of your community want to be part of this great effort, you can contact us, and support us to create knowledge.

Land Conservation and Forest Restoration, Science and Research

Endless forest interactions

Blogpost by Jonathan Navarro Picado, Healthy Rivers Program Coordinator

Whether we perceive it or not, the forest is alive; there is movement, there is disorder, and—most importantly—there are endless interactions. This last word is the key to help make this hidden world clear to our human “worlds,” which are so short and tiny in comparison to the existence of these forests.

When you walk through the old growth and secondary forests of the Osa Verde BioStation (Piro), you can see everythimg from herbs, seedlings and shrubs to gigantic trees hundreds of years old. Commonly seen are a great diversity of birds and insects, and sometimes one can have the good fortune to observe peccaries or to spot a small wild cat.

Epiphytes crawl up the trunk of a mature rainforest tree. Photo: Jonathan Navarro Picado

Now, there are many other things that we cannot witness, either because they occur at scales unimaginable to the human being (at a microscopic level, like bacteria, or in the heights of treetops) or because it would take months or years to notice the patterns of a certain event. One way to notice these small scale changes that happen in the forest is through observing the difference between day and night. In the night, more sounds are heard, even different events or movements are observed.

Observing a higuerón seems impressive to us all, but the interactions are what fascinate biologists: the complexity of their pollination related to certain wasp species, the presence of hemiepiphytes (a plant that stays in another) that present the majority of fig trees (Ficusspp) and how they affect the development and biology of other plant species. In addition, there is a large number of birds that feed on the fruits of Ficus and are also their dispersers. The Fig tree is related to an endless number of animals and events. This is considering only a specific tree; therefore, the amount of interactions in the forest is unimaginable, more taking into account that over time new relationships will appear.

The sad thing about all this is that as you learn more about the complexity of a forest and the interdependence among all its components, when you hear that people are cutting down a forest, extracting endangered species, polluting of rivers, hunting and causing many other environmental problems, you realize that the impact is at the ecosystem level and that recovering the conditions of a forest with all its interactions will take years or even centuries.

Bats residing in the hallowed-out old Ajo tree (Caryocar costarricense). Photo: Elène Haave Audet

When a person for personal and economic interests cuts down a tree that is hundreds of years old and says “there are many other trees” or even plants a new one, perhaps he or she does not know or does not share the great feeling of entering the cave formed at the base of a great old garlic tree (Caryocar costarricense), of feel part of nature itself. More importantly, perhaps he or she does not see the amount of bats that depend on said cave, the facilitation in the dispersal of seeds, the great source of food for so many animals and all the storage of carbon during decades that helps us to be here today delighting in all these interactions.

That’s why I want to be part of those interactions in a positive way, through inducing positive change. As the change from being a Osa Conservation Restoration & Rewilding Field Course student to being the Coordinator of the Healthy Rivers program here, I hope that this challenge helps to conserve many interactions in the veins of our planet.

Jonathan, with fellow students in Restoration & Rewilding Field Course, identify aquatic insects as indicators of healthy river ecosystems. Photo: Hilary Brumberg

Aquatic Health, Community Outreach, Environmental Education

“Picnic in the River,” a nationwide celebration of rivers

Blogpost by Kristina Graves, Healthy Rivers Program Research Field Assistant and Masters Student at Imperial College London

Having just arrived at the start of the week, I was really excited to hear that Osa Conservation was hosting a “Picnic in the River” in celebration of Costa Rican rivers and their importance to people and wildlife. I thought it would be a great way to understand the context of rivers in the Osa and community and throw myself headfirst into learning some Spanish. 

“Picnic in the River” is an annual festival in which communities across Costa Rica celebrate rivers as part of the International Day of Action for Rivers. This year, we hosted the largest ever Osa Peninsula “Picnic en el River”, thanks to the 71 community members who come out to our Osa Verde BioStation (Piro) to celebrate rivers. 

The Osa Community celebrated Costa Rica’s rivers, along with 170 groups across Costa Rica, in honor of the International Day of River Action. Photo: Jo De Pauw

The day started off with a buzz in the air and a tangible excitement among the staff in anticipation of the day. It all kicked off when three buses arrived bringing children from local schools and their families to the station. 

After introductions, workshops were led by Hilary Brumberg (Healthy Rivers Program Coordinator), and Mariam Weyand (Sea Turtle Biologist), and Marlon Jiménez Castro (the local aqueduct administrator), to highlight the many uses people have for rivers and how rivers function as a connection between the land and the sea. Marco Hidalgo (Coordinator of Ecosystem Resilience and Community Outreach) explained how the iNaturalist application can be used to register the incredible wildlife found in the Osa. The children, who were initially shy, seemed really enthusiastic as they called out their ideas and got involved in the presentations. 

Participants learned about aquatic biodiversity and competed in a mini “BioBlitz” to find as much wildlife as they could. Photo: Osa Conservation

The children had two dances prepared for the day, and outfits to match! They came dressed as iconic forest creatures and plants and they looked fantastic. It was great to get involved with them at the end and share their enthusiasm for nature and the day in general. 

In the afternoon, families were split into two groups and led to either Piro River or the nearby Piro Beach, where Piro River meets the sea, to get an opportunity to experience first-hand the diversity and ecological importance of their country. The kids participated in a mini wildlife BioBlitz, each competing to find the most different types of wildlife to records on their iNaturalist “nametags.” Nature really showed off with some turtle hatchlings at the beach and lots of shrimp, fish and insect larva in the stream. There was also time for a quick dip in the stream afterwards to cool off!

To celebrate declaring Piro River “healthy” based on a high diversity of aquatic wildlife, the kids celebrated with a dip in the stream. Photo: Jo De Pauw

Overall, it felt great to be part of a “Picnic in the River” celebration on the same day as 170 groups across Costa Rica in honor of the International Day of River Action. I had a great first introduction to the community and streams in the Osa Peninsula and I am so excited to get stuck in to the projects and be a part of the work Osa Conservation are doing here.

Birds, Community Outreach, Land Conservation and Forest Restoration, Science and Research, Sea Turtles, Volunteers and Visitors

Repeat volunteers reflect on growth of restoration plots and science programs

Blogpost by Robin Morris and Steve Pearce, General Volunteers

It seems like yesterday when we walked through the gate to the Osa Verde BioStation (Piro) for the first time in January 2017 and were greeted by a group scarlet macaws in the trees snacking and squawking.  We’re here now for our third winter excursion, and I have to admit we’ve done some cool things the last couple years.  

Robin enjoying a two-year-old balsa forest. During Robin and Steve’s 2018 visit, they helped clear plants around the small balsa saplings, and in 2019, they helped preparing bird boxes to bring wildlife to the young balsa forest. Photo: Steve Pearce

One of the projects we’ve helped with here is reforesting abandoned farmland.  Seedlings of balsa trees have been planted, and on a previous stay we were given small machetes and told to clear the plants around the seedlings, a project we lovingly christened ¨Weeding the rainforest.¨ It felt somewhat silly and hopeless, but when we came this year, we found new forests of balsa on the former farmland, proving conservation work frequently requires patience to see results.  Part of the reforestation process is creating habitats for animals, so this year we helped set up bird boxes to encourage birds to move into the new forest, sort of like opening a piano bar to lure lounge lizards.  

“Conservation work frequently requires patience to see results.”

Robin helping Manuel relocate a sea turtle nest on a patrol with Manuel Sanchez. Photo: Steve Pearce

One of the great lures to volunteering here is the Sea Turtle Program.  A newly hatched green or Olive Ridley turtle could give cuteness-lessons to puppies or kittens. When we first came here two years ago, the program was led by local legendary naturalist and photographer Manuel Sanchez.  Last year we even got to checked on the hatchery in the afternoons so he could have a vacation.  The Sea Turtle Program, like much work in conservation, is a steady commitment. Now the program has several dedicated enthusiastic staff members, frequently assisted by volunteers like us.  But the work is still the same, patrolling the deserted beach on breathtaking mornings, finding and relocating nests to the hatchery, releasing the hatchlings to the sea, as well as excavating nests to determine mortality rates among the eggs.  And after releasing young turtles for three years, it’s fun to watch people melt.

“The Sea Turtle Program, like much work in conservation, is a steady commitment… And after releasing young turtles for three years, it’s fun to watch people melt.”

The Osa features a splendid variety of wildlife, from squirrel monkeys and scarlet macaws to cane toads and green turtles.  Each trip has brought new sightings or exciting moments of discovery.  But one creature has almost brought our marriage to an end each year.  No, a jaguar has not attacked us on a footpath.  Snakes have not ambushed us in the bathroom.  And no, a crocodile has never attacked us on the beach. The problem is that Steve always falls in love with the paraque.  

Steve’s girlfriend, a paraque, resting in the pavilion. Photo: Steve Pearce

A nocturnal species, the paraque birds frequently sit along the paths of the research station and even in the pavilion, occasionally sweeping through to feed on insects drawn by the light.   They make an assortment of whistles to other paraques in the area and flop about when people walk near.  They sometimes make cooing ¨bwot¨ sounds.  Local folklore includes tales of the paraque calling travelers into the forest to get them or their children lost.  A paraque sometimes follows us to our cabina and bwots to lure me outside.  Attempts to photograph them at night usually yield nothing but a red dot in the darkness, further evidence of their supernatural nature.  

The paraque is a heartbreaker though, for when we asked another volunteer what her favorite mammal and bird of the Osa were, she replied ¨squirrel monkeys and Steve’s girlfriend.¨  We hope to leave at the end of the week without Steve pining for his girlfriend at the airport.

Uncategorized

Osa Conservation’s hidden treasures

Blotpost by Sophie Blow, General Volunteer

I came to Osa Conservation as a volunteer as part of my year abroad from university to improve my Spanish. I study French, Spanish and Portuguese at Warwick University in the UK and I couldn’t think of anywhere better to immerse myself in a different culture and way of life, while improving my Spanish at the same time, than the beautiful Osa Peninsula. During my spare time as a volunteer, I try to explore the site as much as I can, to discover what’s hidden in and around my new home.

Here are my four favourite spots around the Osa Conservation site to immerse myself in the breath-taking nature that surrounds me on a daily basis:

  • The rocks at sunset

Behind the plots of the finca lies the perfect hideaway for looking out over the ocean during sunset. Whether I fancy a dip in the rock pools, doing some yoga as the sun falls or having some quiet time to reenergise after a busy day, the rocks is the tranquil setting I head to. 

  • The beach at sunrise

A 4:30 wake-up call for morning patrol along Piro beach can be difficult for me to stomach, but once I see the vivid paint strokes of deep reds and burnt oranges illuminating the morning sky, I know I made the right decision not to snooze my alarm. 

  • Cerra Osa at sunset

Cerro Osa might seem like a bit of a trek to watch the sunset, but once I sit on the patio, you’ll understand the beauty of this remote location. There’s no better way to watch the sunset than sat on the rocking chairs, everyone in stunned silence by the amazing site that fills the sky. Overlooking a clearing filled with thousands of trees, it’s hard to find a better viewpoint to watch the blazing reds of an Osa Peninsula sunset. 

  • The bat roost on the Ajo trail

Osa Conservation site boasts many trails through the primary forest for you to explore. If you decide to delve deeper into your surroundings, put the bat roost on the Ajo at the top of your Osa bucket list. In one of the biggest and oldest trees on the trail, a small opening at the base of the tree opens up a whole new world for you to discover. Nestled away inside hides hundreds of frog eating bats that have made this ancient treasure their home. 


Land Conservation and Forest Restoration, Science and Research, Sustainable agriculture

New plant record for the Osa Peninsula: Cipura campanulata

By Marvin Lopez Morales, Botanic Assistant

Not long ago, the Costa Rican ethnobotanist Jorge Luis Poveda visited Osa Conservation. For me, it was an honor and pleasure to meet him. 

Luis Poveda in the forest during his visit to our Conservation campus. Photo credit: Osa Conservation

A simple and very friendly person, he has so many stories to tell about his personal experiences, plants, and teaching a wide variety of people. Poveda has devoted many years of his professional career to projects against cancer, Costa Rican Trees, and Manual of Plants of Costa Rica, among others. In addition, he is a passionate naturalist, and he writes poems inspired by nature itself. 

In one of his walks through Cerro Osa, he saw a small plant that caught his attention that he had not seen before in the Osa Peninsula, Cipura campanulata. It was the first report of this species for the area. Our botanist friend, Reinaldo Aguilar, who lives in Puerto Jiménez, confirmed the discovery.

View of Cerro Osa, natural habitat of this beautiful plant. Photo credit: Osa Conservation

It is a Monocotyledonous plant, belonging to the family of Iridaceae plants. For the country, Costa Rica, there are 6 generaand 14 species registered, among them the genus Cipura, which consists of 5 species in total. 

This plant is found only in the continent of America, with a wide distribution range that extends from Mexico to Colombia and Venezuela and Antilles. In Costa Rica, it is found mainly to the north of the Pacific slope and in the plains of Guanacaste between 0 to 300 meters above sea level. They reach a height of about 20 to 60 cm high, and their leaves have a resemblance to rice plants with white flowers in the shape of a small bell that open very early in the morning and also close in a short time. Because of their small size, they are ideal to have as ornamentals.

Cipura campanulata in its natural environment. This plant has the potential to be used in our gardens as an ornamental plant. Photo credit: Rich Hoyer

This plant flowers once a day. If you get to own one of these wonderful plants, you can be sure every morning that this grass-shaped, bushy plant will have a small flower to brighten the morning, wishing you good morning. Sit with a good coffee and admire the beauty of this fragile and helpless little plant.

One of Poveda’s poems:

La Montaña Mágica

Sí, eres mágica, eres hontanar de sabiduría, eres pan nuestro de cada día.

Oh Montaña Sagrada que nutres nuestras vidas,

joyel de aventuras, sacrosanto vergel,

estancia de mi vejez.

–Jorge Luis Poveda Álvares”

Uncategorized

Connecting hammerhead shark populations from the Eastern Tropical Pacific

Blogpost by Mariana Elizondo Sancho, Álvaro Ugalde grant awardee

Sphyrna lewiniis one of the nine species of hammerhead sharks, and it lives across the tropics worldwide. This species is categorized as Endangered, since its populations have declined more than 50% in the last 10 years, according to the IUCN. This shark is threatened by fisheries, both as bycatch and as directed fishing, since their fins are highly valued in the international fin market. 

Hammerhead shark school in the open waters from Cocos Island in the Pacific of Costa Rica. Photo: David Garcia

This shark has an interesting behavior in which females come to coastal waters called nursery areas to deliver their pups. Juveniles remain in these areas for their first years, so coastal marshes and wetlands are an important habitat for their nurturing. In Costa Rica, these areas are threatened both by habitat degradation and by fisheries. One of the most important nursery areas is the Golfo Dulce in the southern pacific of Costa Rica. 

After this first stage of life, adults move to open waters and islands, where constant migration is observed. Once in open waters and near the Cocos Island, this shark is specifically targeted for its fins. Protecting this highly mobile animal that can migrate long distances is a hard task since its populations are not in a specific geographic place during their whole lifetime. 

Also in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, population structure is not well known. Is it one population or are there several? Do females prefer specific nursing grounds to deliver their pups? Understanding population structure and movements of hammerhead sharks is vital to establish regional management and policies.

DNA extraction of hammerhead shark tissue. Photo: Mariana Elizondo

I have been researching the connectivity and genetic population structure of S. lewiniin various coastal nursing areas in Guatemala, Costa Rica and Panamá. The results of this research will be important to provide biological information for management plans that will aim to protect specific important geographical areas for this species’ persistence.


Sea Turtles, Volunteers and Visitors, Wildcats

More than a green patch on a map: Osa’s biodiversity and charm must be experienced in person

Blogpost by Thomas Kao, Volunteer, Age 14

In this modern day and age, we often forget there is more on this planet than just your home. As a young student with a love for maps, I have always set my eyes on this little corner of the world, an untouched paradise: Osa Peninsula.

As I mentioned, I absolutely love maps. I have laid my eyeballs over thousands of them, hungry for locations and searching for something new. However, maps can only tell you so much, and in reality they are portals to the lands they project.

Thomas and his mother, Lynn, taking a break under a giant old Ajo tree while hiking the Ajo Trail. Photo: Lucia Vargas

For Christmas, Santa delivered me a beautiful atlas, however, this atlas was a very recent edition. Thanks to the work of scientists in the field, preserving the ecosystem has never been more highlighted in history and this new atlas revealed every single National Park in the world. While browsing the atlas, Costa Rica really stood out. National Parks practically litered the page, and the Osa Peninsula was drowned in a sea of green labels. One minute I found myself staring at a page in a book and in the next I found myself in a plane leaving Los Angeles. Life can be hilarious sometimes.

Once at Osa Conservation, we participated in hatchery checks where we released hundreds of sea turtle babies. Everyday, I watched them crawl into the ocean with a smile on my face. Once the turtles made it home, we would trek back to the camp through a beautiful rainforest, and we could see tons of different animals that Osa provides with its limitless biodiversity.

A happy group of volunteers and Sea Turtle Research Field Assistants headed back from a morning sea turtle patrol of Piro Beach. Photo: Shannon Millar

The forest is never quiet and is always so full with life and magnificent greenery. Butterflys float around the fields and birds soar across the blue sky with grace. Monkeys of all types leap across the forest canopy whilst snakes slither across the forest floor. In the rivers and swamps you can find basoliths, lizards capable of walking on water, and small schools of fish swimming through the clear water. In California, almost none of the animals found here exist; the two enviroments are polar-opposites. If there is something I will never forget about Osa, it must be the local fauna and plantlife.

While living at the Osa Verde BioStation was at first out of my comfort zone, it quickly became a lovely and comfortable second home. The first day, I found a large spider sitting on a counter the size of my hand, that certainly give me a heart attack! However, each night the sky is covered with stars, a view I never saw in the USA. When staring at the stars, you will always hear monkeys, insects and birds, a non-stop noise but not an annoying one. It gives the surrouding forest livelihood and soul, showing you just how active Osa is.

Thomas excitedly holding a butterfly he encountered at the Osa Verde BioStation. Photo: Lynn Kao

Once in bed I fell asleep, the living quarters were extremely clean, something you definently wouldn´t expect. In fact, I have never slept better in my life; I was sound asleep like a baby. Three times a day meals were served, and all of them were delightful. All things considered, the food served here is best I´ve had in a long time.

I have been in other countries before with rainforests, but Costa Rica´s Osa Peninsula tops the list as the best one. I definently will have plenty of stories to tell my friends, I´m very glad and grateful that I had the opportunity to set foot in this foreign land.

Maps can only take you so far; there are no turtles, stars and monkeys on a map. It is only when you set foot in a new location, will you actually feel and experience an entirely new world.

Aves, Birds, Community Outreach, Science and Research

Descubriendo la ecología de un ave endémica y en peligro en Osa: Habia atrimaxillaris

Blogpost por Arlet Quiros-Calvo, ganador de la Beca Alvaro Ugalde y estudiante de maestría en la Universidad de Costa Rica

Macho y hembra de izquierda a derecha de tangara hormiguera carinegra (H. atrimaxillaris). Fotos: Arlet Quiros-Calvo

 Me llamo Arlet, trabajo con una especie en peligro de extinción, especial porque se encuentra en un único lugar del mundo. La tangara hormiguera carinegra, Habia atrimaxillaris, habita solamente en la Península de Osa y en el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Golfito-Parque Nacional Piedras Blancas en Costa Rica.

 Se cree que su población está disminuyendo rápidamente dentro de su pequeño rango geográfico debido a una gran reducción de su hábitat, resultante de la deforestación y la expansión de la frontera agrícola en el Pacífico Sur.

 Según investigaciones en la Gamba de Golfito, esta especie tiene una preferencia por los bosques primarios y bosques secundarios maduros. Al ser una especie que forrajea en el sotobosque, es decir, en la vegetación que se encuentra por debajo del dosel, puede ser muy sensible a las fragmentaciones del bosque. Aún así, el estado de conservación actual de la especie y el conocimiento sobre sus preferencias de hábitat es muy limitado en la Península de Osa, por lo que decidí ampliar la información existente sobre esta ave con la beca Álvaro Ugalde de Conservación Osa.

Los asistentes monitoreando día a día los nidos (izquierda). Realizando mediciones de las parcelas en Dos Brazos del Rio Tigre y la Tarde (derecha). Fotos: Arlet Quiros-Calvo

Desarrollamos esta investigación en sitios ubicados en la comunidad llamada La Tarde y la comunidad Dos Brazos de Rio Tigre, donde localizamos individuos en dos parcelas. Cuando nos dispusimos a monitorearlos, día a día, ¡descubrimos algunos secretos de su reproducción! 

Hasta el momento, hemos descubierto información muy valiosa para la conservación de esta peculiar especie. En los meses de época reproductiva (febrero-abril), observamos su comportamiento de cortejo y apareamiento, la selección del sitio de anidación, preferencia de hábitat, el número de huevos, su alimentación, e incluso anotamos datos de polluelos depredados. Además, mediante videos, llegamos a ver actividades cotidianas como forrajeo, búsqueda de alimento e incubación, lo cual nos ayuda a entender la complejidad reproductiva de la especie y su adaptabilidad en Osa. Adicionalmente, el comportamiento reproductivo es diferente en Dos Brazos de Rio Tigre y la Tarde, por la misma razón: la fragmentación de propiedades vecinas al Parque Nacional Corcovado.

Nido encontrado en la palma suita Asterogyne martiana en Dos Brazos de Río Tigre. Foto: Arlet Quiros-Calvo

A pesar de que en la literatura se menciona que la distribución de la especie se limita a hábitat maduro, nosotros ubicamos nidos en bosques de galería (bosques en los bordes de cuerpos de agua), áreas abiertas, bosques en regeneración y zonas de pendiente.

Al visualizar todos estos datos obtenidos, podemos generar información clave para proteger los bosques de Osa, sus aves y en general toda la biodiversidad presente en esta pequeña área de Costa Rica.

Diseño del nido de H. atrimaxillaris encontrado en Dos Brazos de Rio Tigre. Foto: Arlet Quiros-Calvo

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