Environmental Education, Miscellaneous, Science and Research, Volunteers and Visitors

A little luck and a fun(gi) story

Read about Grace Leppink’s experience in the Osa as she makes exciting fungi discoveries!

Fungi are found throughout the world, but some of the most amazing and diverse fungi are found in Costa Rica.  The combination of deeply shaded forests and a warm, humid climate makes Costa Rica the perfect incubator for fungi.  As a new mycologist, the opportunity to travel to Costa Rica was one that I could not pass up.  On my first day at the Piro Research Station I had an exciting and lucky encounter with fungi.

fungus

Staheliomyces cincta, fresh and erect.

We were in the thick of the forest on the Ajo Trail. As we rounded the corner we found our prey under the canopy of a giant tree. The intricate lacework of its body was accented by the few rays of light the canopy allowed through.  We had come across a stunning specimen – the strangled stinkhorn, Staheliomyces cinctus.  When I first laid my eyes on it, it seemed out of place compared to the brown and green hues surrounding it.  This white alien shape seemed to protrude out of nowhere, like some weird organic artifact. As my professor joked later, it was the best accessorized fungi he had ever met, as it wore a thick shiny black belt – of slime containing its spores.

 

collapsing fungi

Same fungus, same day. Starting to collapse! It was undetectable a day later.

This stinkhorn is uncommon and not well documented. One reason is due to the short time that the fruiting body exists.  The structure rarely lasts more than a day before turning into messy lump of black goo.  If my group had not gone out to that trail on that morning we might only have found a shriveled shadow of its former glory.

In the following weeks I hope to continue my documentation of the fantastic fungi by looking at the secondary and primary forests of the OSA peninsula!

 

Aquatic Health, Environmental Education, Marine Conservation, Sea Turtles, Volunteers and Visitors

The Future of Sea Turtles

turtle picture

The fluttering of papery wings; back and forth, back and forth. They open and close their tiny mouths. Nocturnal hungry bats, paired with the incessant whir of cicada wings and the low, ominous drone of Howler monkeys are the evening calls of the Osa. These sounds signify the awakening of all things that dwell in the night. Usually, it also signifies our bedtime; unless it’s an evening of turtle patrol.

When I took herpetology as a senior in college three years ago, my professor used to joke that, “Herpetologists are the night-owls and ornithologists are the morning people”. But, working with sea turtles breaks the mold. Sometimes, we rise at 3:30am. Donning our headlamps, we make our way down the winding forested trail to Piro or Pejeperro Beach, and scout for turtle tracks and hatchlings as the sun paints purple and pink ribbons across the sky. Sometimes, we have to sip on coffee (like the local Ticos do) post-dinner to keep us from falling asleep before a night patrol. Patrols typically begin at 8:30pm and can last beyond 1:00am. In my three weeks of being here, I’ve seen five Loras (Olive ridleys) and two Verdes (Greens) gingerly crawl from the surf to lay their eggs. I’ve measured their shells and tagged their flippers . And just last night, we saw a white light flashing ever closer to us on Piro—a sign of poachers. We had to abandon patrol.baby turtle

Poaching of turtle eggs is a sad reality here in Costa Rica. For many, it’s a feasible way to make a living and support a family. But through education, the next generation can learn the importance of conserving their country’s already threatened sea turtle species.

As a sea turtle Research Field Assistant, my main responsibilities are conducting patrols, maintaining the hatchery, and providing a steady presence on the beach. But the Carate Sea Turtle Festival last Saturday reminded me of my experience with outreach education. The enthusiasm and receptivity of the children around me was incredible, whether they be Spanish speaking locals or English speaking visitors. All partook in eagerly picking up and exploring local invertebrates with spoons and forceps, and dashing around the beach like a mother turtle (but a little faster). They learned what sea turtles eat (seagrasses, sponges, jellies, ect.), what they accidentally eat (plastic), and how we can keep plastics out of our ocean by using reusable alternatives. Later, we danced to a local band that sang songs about el bosque and la playa and the animals that call them home. Mid-dance, I helped a local toddler collect hermit crabs in a bucket. It didn’t matter that I hardly speak Spanish; our enthusiasm spoke for us. I can only hope that every child I met in Carate shared a similar enthusiasm and will remember the day we celebrated sea turtles, for their future is in all of our hands.

Birds, Environmental Education, Science and Research

Love-songs and Lovebirds in the Osa

Read about Esmeralda Quirós Guerrero’s research on the singing patterns of birds in the Osa. The intense biodiversity around our stations provided her with a perfect place to conduct her research. We love learning more about the incredible birds of the Osa!

Did you know that many species of birds sing duets? Vocal displays are one of the most researched interactions between and within species. There is a great diversity in the structure of singing behavior. I have been investigating the learning process of duets in Osa songbirds. Duets are complex songs that large groups or paired mates sing in coordination with one another to produce a wide array of performances. Not only are duets complex in how they are structured but several species also have a big repertoire of duets that they use non-randomly. For example, a particular phrase from a female is only sung in response to a particular phrase from a male and vice versa. This coordination is not only hard to produce but also hard to learn.

Riverside Wren

Riverside Wren

I chose to study the development of Riverside Wrens, Cantorchilus semibadius which inhabit the pacific slope of southern Costa Rica. Riverside Wrens are found next to rivers and wetlands and they sing elaborate duets. I decided to conduct my research at Osa Conservation because they have a large population of these Wrens right next to their station.

At this first stage of my PhD I am beginning to describe how juveniles from each sex start to learn and practice their vocalizations. So far I am seeing that in the earlier stages vocalizations are quite atypical, in the intermediate stages single individuals are performing whole duets, and in the latter stages individuals are singing with siblings and their parents. Initially, they sing both male type or female type songs interchangeably. In the latter stages individuals mostly stick to one type of vocalization, either male or female depending on their sex. This means that juveniles need a rehearsal period to learn how to duet and that the interactions with sibling and adults while practicing is essential. I believe investigating the relationship between social influences and duets is important in understanding such an intriguing and complex behavior.

banding

Banding the Wrens

 

 

Esmeralda Quirós Guerrero

PhD Student-St. Andrews University, United Kingdom

Environmental Education, Science and Research, Volunteers and Visitors

A Night with Bats

Bats. These nocturnal creatures tend to get a bad rap. Associated for centuries with mythical creatures of the night, and used as Halloween decorations to add eeriness to a haunted house, the real life mammal often gets overlooked. OC aims to change that by collaborating with experts and educating the public on the crucial role bats play in restoration.

Recently, Osa Conservation was honored with a visit from 2 remarkable scientists in the bat world: Cullen Geiselman, bat biologist and board member of Bat Conservation International & Gloriana Chaverri, a University of Costa Rica professor and respected bat biologist who conducts ongoing research at OC’s properties.

Chaverri and Geiselman visited Osa Conservation to brainstorm with OC on how we can help make people aware of how crucial this magnificent animal is to the Osa and the myriad ecosystems they inhabit.

Along with OC Science & Education Director, Jim Palmer, they explored Chaverri’s research sites and visited Osa Conservation’s newest property, Osa Verde. Osa Verde will, among other things, be the site of experimental restoration plots where researchers and students will study the process of forest succession in the Osa to help improve reforestation efforts. (For more information, please visit http://osaconservation.org/visit-the-osa/volunteer/tropical-reforestation/). This site will be important for bat research and conservation efforts as we study their impact on regeneration through seed dispersal and monitor their presence in strategically placed bat boxes.

One night of the visit, under the cover of the dense canopy and the starry Costa Rican sky, these expert bat wranglers set up mist nets to capture and study bats. Volunteers and visitors watched in awe as they collected data on the bats and released them.

It was a fun, successful visit. OC staff and station visitors learned a lot from hearing about the work of Geiselman and Chaverri and taking part in an evening of mist netting. We all gained a great appreciation for these cute mammals and OC looks forward to sharing this information and spreading the message! Bats rock!

Fast Facts About Bats!

  • Bats eat bugs! In the U.S. bats are estimated to be worth more than $3.7 billion a year in reduced crop damage and pesticide use.
  • Bats are important pollinators! Some of the commercial products that bats help provide include: bananas, peaches, cloves, carob, and agave.
  • Bats play a key role in reforestation! Fruit-eating bats help repopulate tropical forests by dispersing the seeds of fruiting trees over wide areas. Bats are important seed dispersers for avocados, dates, figs, and cashews – to name a few.

Source: Bat Conservation International

Community Outreach, Environmental Education, Science and Research, Volunteers and Visitors

Environmental Festivals in the Osa

World Environment Day, 2nd Anniversary of the Luis Jorge Poveda Álvarez Arboretum and inauguration of the Centenary Forest.

In early June, we had three important celebrations: World Environment Day, the 2nd anniversary of the Jorge Poveda Álvarez Arboretum and the inauguration of the Centenary Forest.

World Environment Day was celebrated in early June, and had participation from diverse groups of people. We had students from various educational centers participate as well as people from organizations and businesses with various fields of focus, like mangroves in the case of Fundación Neotrópica, sea turtles in the case of LAST (Latin American Sea Turtles) and sustainable forest plantations in the case of LACT. The support and participation of local farmers and artisans with the exhibition and sale of their products topped off a great turnout.

Furthermore, this y11011808_442506935917583_1591210675148998070_near we celebrated two important events in forest culture. First, the second anniversary of the Luis Jorge Poveda Álvarez Arboretum was on June 14. This museum of trees on the Osa Peninsula includes emblematic and threatened species like the ajo negro (Anthodiscus chocoensis), the camíbar (Copaifera aromatica), the nazareno or purpleheart (Peltogyne purpurea Pittier), the cristóbal (Platymiscium pinnatum) and the breadnut or Maya nut (Brosimum alicastrum).

Lastly, on June 15 was the inauguration of the Centenary Forest. This day pays homage to the 100 years of the institutionalization of National Tree Day by President Alfredo González Flores, and also to honor the people and institutions that have worked toward the conservation of the forests like Don Álvaro Ugalde, Daniel Janzen and Winnie Hallwach. This has been and initiative of the Golfo Dulce Forest Reserve, as a strategy to promote forest culture in the communities of the Osa and to promote an appreciation for the forests and their ecosystem services.

Celebrations like these are crucial to community outreach, especially to the younger generations. By celebrating how far we’ve come and our accomplishments in conservation, we get people excited about nature and inspire more action to protect it in the future!

Environmental Education, Science and Research, Volunteers and Visitors

Bats Abound!

The Magnificent Gleaning Phyllostomines of the Osa

Submitted by : Doris Audet and Elène Haave Audet, University of Alberta, Canada

Slide1 (1)

Among the rich bat fauna to call Osa Conservation home, a select group speaks to the pristine nature of its old-growth forest: the gleaning phyllostomines.  These large-eared members of the highly diverse leaf-nosed bat family favour habitats of high ecological integrity that include mature forests and undisturbed riparian corridors.

They kindly allowed us to take before going on with their lives.

They kindly allowed us to take their photos before going on with their lives.

Phyllostomines are typically found in low abundance throughout their ranges, however since we started surveying the bat fauna around the Piro Biological Station in 2012, eight of the 33 bat species that we identified belong to this special group. This represents about half of the phyllostomines species expected to inhabit the lowlands of the Osa Peninsula.

 

 

Phyllostomines are primarily insectivorous, and their unusual manoeuvrability allows them to forage within the forest understory, either gleaning their prey from the vegetation or catching them in flight. Some of the larger species, such as the frog-eating bat (Trachops cirrhosus), also include vertebrates in their diet.  Their large, sensitive ears allow them to eavesdrop upon the mating calls of frogs and insects. The similar sized white-throated round-eared bat (Lophostoma silvicolum) has the peculiar habit of roosting in live termite nests, making it one of the rare bat species known to dig out its own shelters.

Slide3

Striped-headed round-eared bat

 

The striped-headed round-eared bat (Tonatia saurophila) (shown right), like many other phyllostomine species, occurs in low abundance and is relatively rare throughout its range.  Consequently, we have much to learn about their lives in the wild.

 

 

Slide4

Common big-eared bat

The smallest of them all (shown left), at around 5 g, is the common big-eared bat (Micronycteris microtis). As its name suggests, it is among the more frequently encountered bats of this group;  nevertheless, it is unlikely to appear in highly disturbed habitats. Common big-eared bats are known to include fruit in their diet, as is probably the case for many other more secretive phyllostomines.

 

The star of our bat encounters at Osa, the woolly false vampire (Chrotopterus auritus) (shown below), is the second largest bat species in the New World, with a wingspan of over half a meter.  Ten times the weight of the common big-eared bat, it is one of the top nocturnal predators.

Slide5

Woolly false vampire bat

 

The presence of diverse phyllostomines in Osa’s old growth areas is good news for the outcome of forest restoration, as they will provide the source populations necessary to re-colonize restored areas as they become suitable. On each of our visits to the Osa, at least one additional phyllostomine species revealed its presence, and we are eager to continue discovering what bats call this forest home!

Community Outreach, Environmental Education, Marine Conservation, Sea Turtles, Volunteers and Visitors

Yoga and Conservation: a pair meant to be

When I came to a yoga retreat in the wilds of Costa Rica, I had no idea one of the best memories I’d take home at week’s end would center around turtles–tiny baby ones, all girls.

But when Manuel Mendoza of Osa Conservation visited Blue Osa Yoga Retreat & Spa to tell us about the work he and his team of volunteers do to protect these magnificent, highly endangered creatures, I couldn’t believe how paramount the need was, and was excited to become involved.

I dragged myself out of bed the next morning at 5:30 am–quite an accomplishment as rain pelted the metal roof of my temporary home, lulling me into a deep sleep I’ve only achieved on tropical vacations. My travel companions and I bounded into two 4-wheel drive vehicles and headed south along a pothole riddled road to the end of the Osa Peninsula, one of the most bio-diverse regions on earth.

Manuel greeted us at the gates to his compound, an open-air Cocina with a separate building for offices and research, surrounded by immense green space and backing up to rain forest as far as the eye could see. This did not look like a suitable home for sea turtles.

The Blue Osa crew was directed to choose from a bushel basket of rain boots, the purpose of which was somewhat lost on me since I was already completely soaked, head to toe, just from making my way from the car. Manuel said we would make a short hike along a muddy jungle path to get to the hatchlings waiting on us to set them free into the great Pacific.

This was not a leisurely stroll through the woods. We walked at a brisk pace, wading through rivers, tripping over enormous tree roots, and slipping in the mud as we went.

Finally, in harmony with the jungle sounds, the roar of the Pacific drew us near and motivated me onward through the unfamiliar territory.

When the forest cleared, churning waves pounded down aggressively in front of Osa Conservation’s hatchery.

Manuel took us through deep sand to the hatchery where we became mesmerized at the big life coming from the group of small creatures. It was otherworldly to reach down and touch the babies, the textures of their feet and shells connecting me to nature in a way I’d never been before.

They scuttled around the buckets we hauled down the beach toward the release area. Our emotions were running high at the task ahead.

Manuel indicated the proper spot and gave us guidelines for the release experience. The numbers were not in the little ones’ favor. Of our 250+ hatchlings only one or two were likely to survive due to the factors working against them. But we didn’t lose hope.

It was a mix of emotions as we pulled each little life from the large green containers and encouraged them down the wide stretch of beach toward the water, which calmed a bit in their good fortune.

The journey for them was short, but for me it had a long-lasting effect. Watching the babies get swept bravely into the sea inspired me. I was filled with joy to have participated in such a pivotal experience.

When I returned to Blue Osa that evening, I spent time on my yoga mat thinking how the impact the hatchlings had on me exceeded the impact I’d had on them–and how Osa Conservation’s efforts are impassioned and infectious.

My body might have been recovering from the hike–achy and blistered–but my soul was content. Rainforest hiking and nature preservation had never been in my immediate skill-set, yet I found a way to make a difference in the Osa.

About The Author

When photographer/writer Leah Wyman found herself in the midst of a quarter-life crisis, she left her job in the church world for the sanctuary that is Blue Osa. A classical singer, composer and conductor with a B.M. degree from Manhattan School of Music and further studies at the University of Oxford in England, Leah is finding inspiring new ways to use her voice–in harmony with howler monkeys, scarlet macaws and crashing ocean waves at blueosa.com.

Community Outreach, Environmental Education, Science and Research

Ríos Saludables on the Road!

Submitted by: Jim Palmer, Science and Education Director

Osa Conservation took its new citizen-science stream-monitoring network, Ríos Saludables de Osa, on the road in February for a community workshop in the San Josecito area south of Dominical. Over 35 community members including kids convened in the scenic watershed of the Rio Higuerón for a full day of ‘immersion’ in stream ecology and hands-on measurement of aquatic health.

Claudia Alderman, a resident of San Josecito and member of our Osa Conservation Science and Education Advisory Committee, hosted the event. Activities were facilitated by Osa Conservation staff: Pilar Bernal (Environmental Educator), Erin Engbeck (Aquatic Research Field Assistant), and Jim Palmer (Science and Education Director), as well as recent UCR graduate Alejandro Muñoz (Biomonitoring and Ecotoxicology Lab).

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The morning session held in the San Josecito community center featured an introduction to the Ríos Saludables Network and hands-on practice in methods of basic analysis of water chemistry and bacterial coliforms. Residents had the opportunity to voice their concerns and personal passion for the health of their drinking water sources and beautiful streams in this mountainside community. Of special concern were instances of illegal harvesting of freshwater shrimp in the watershed and the potential impacts on overall stream health.

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The afternoon was filled entirely with fieldwork from the banks of the beautiful Río Higuerón. Divided in to four teams, the group conducted replicate tests of basic water chemistry (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, nitrates, turbidity, alkalinity), bacteria (E. coli), and stream biodiversity using kick-net samples. The soothing, cool water of the stream and natural waterslides did not escape the attention of these citizen scientists either! Results revealed a stream high in clarity and oxygen with strong influence from adjacent spring-fed tributaries. Kick-net samples detected 27 different taxa of freshwater macroinvertebrates with an ‘excellent’ score (exceeding 120 points on the BMWP-CR index of water quality. Especially important indicators of high water quality, the mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), and caddisflies (Trichoptera) were present in healthy numbers and multiple taxa.

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At the conclusion of a busy day, Jim Palmer presented the San Josecito community group with a complete water testing kit so they may continue to assess the health of their watershed on a monthly basis. OC staff will return periodically for future follow-up sessions to introduce the stream studies to local school classes. We invite the San Josecito community members and students to visit us at Osa Conservation for comparison water studies on the Osa Peninsula and partner with our local schools in Puerto Jimenez, Carbonera, Piro and Río D’Oro in this growing network.

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Ríos Saludables de Osa is a volunteer water-monitoring network for community members and schools of the Osa Peninsula and southwestern Costa Rica. Osa Conservation provides the organizing framework for the project with assistance from professional, government and non-profit agencies. Our purpose is to establish and sustain a network of community volunteers across the Osa region to conduct ongoing basic water quality monitoring. Data will be incorporated into an online Water Atlas for the ACOSA region and used to inform public health, watershed protection and conservation decisions.

Initial organization of Ríos Saludables de Osa was made possible by the materials, resources and experience of our partner organizations: Georgia Adopt-A-Stream (Atlanta, GA, USA); Creek Connections (Allegheny College, USA); and Stroud Water Research Center (Avondale PA, USA). As the project matures, community volunteers and stakeholders will oversee organization and water monitoring activities of local groups.

Community Outreach, Environmental Education

Rios Saludables de Osa Kick-Off!

Written by Erin Engbeck

Tuesday, October 7th, marked the launch of Osa Conservation’s Rios Saludables de Osa program with the first of two workshops co-led by Jim Palmer, the Science and Education Director at Osa Conservation, and our partners from Stroud Water Research Center. The program is based on the involvement of community members and volunteers with the aim of creating a higher level of public awareness and involvement in response to water quality and pollution. Providing citizens with the knowledge and tools for the monitoring of their local waterways as well as encouraging partnerships between local governments and the community.

Tuesday and Wednesday’s workshop initiated the training of Osa staff in identifying key concepts and techniques for data collection and community involvement within the Osa peninsula. Day one started out with introductions and an overview of the project from which we then moved forward and got down to the nitty-gritty subject matter of the workshop. Conducting chemical tests, and collecting data on water chemistries, captivated the attention of staff and volunteers and quickly absorbed the first half of the day.

Jim demonstrating how to conduct a dissolved oxygen test. Photo by, Anahí Quiñones

Jim Palmer demonstrating how to conduct a dissolved oxygen test. Photo by, Anahí Quiñones

Osa staff and research field assistants conducting pH tests. Photo by, Manuel Ramírez

Osa staff and research field assistants conducting pH tests. Photo by, Manuel Ramírez

After lunch the workshop resumed, the focus however switching from chemical testing to coliform. The idea of this test is to collect baseline data for current levels of the fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, or more commonly known as, E.coli. These tests help to determine stream health and whether or not local water sources are possible hazards to human health within the community.  This knowledge can help empower community members through hands on involvement in data collection and creating a sense of place within their natural environment.

Research assistants from Frontier and Osa Conservation learning correct methods for counting E.coli colonies. Photo by, Anahí Quiñones

Research assistants from Frontier and Osa Conservation learning correct methods for counting E.coli colonies. Photo by, Anahí Quiñones

Day two, our time was spent hands-on in the Piro River learning correct techniques for placing and collecting leaf packs. These leaf packs are perfect little houses for collecting aquatic macro invertebrates, the water inhabiting insects with no backbone that are visible to the naked eye. These invertebrates are very important in determining stream health because some of these little guys are very sensitive to changes water chemistry can only persist in certain ranges of water quality. As a result, streams can be classified into categories according to its insect inhabitants.

Tara from Stoud Water Research Center, demonstrating leaf packs. Photo by, Anahí Quiñones

Tara from Stoud Water Research Center, demonstrating leaf packs. Photo by, Anahí Quiñones

As day two came to an end it was quite hard to wrap things up, everybody loved the macro invertebrate leaf packs, because seriously, who doesn’t love an excuse to get down and dirty with insects? As the first workshop came to a close, Osa staff and other volunteers were feeling quite thrilled with the launch of the new project, and were excited to introduce it to the community members with the start of the second workshop on Friday and Saturday.

Volunteers intently looking for aquatic macro invertebrates.  Photo by, Erin Engbeck

Volunteers intently looking for aquatic macro invertebrates. Photo by, Erin Engbeck

The community workshop, on October 10th and 11th, contained eleven community members from the surrounding areas such as, La Paz and Puerto Jimenez. As with day one of the staff workshop, the community workshop followed the same guidelines, introductions and reasons for the importance of the project, then straight to the hands on testing.

Community member practicing dissolved oxygen test. Photo by, Erin Engbeck

Community member practicing dissolved oxygen test. Photo by, Erin Engbeck

David supervising data entry by community members. Photo by, Erin Engbeck

David supervising data entry by community members. Photo by, Erin Engbeck

The most rewarding part of the community workshop was not only empowering the members, so that they could take water quality and stream health into their own hands and share their knowledge with other community members, but also seeing them in the field and truly being interested in work they were doing and why is mattered. Just like with the staff workshop, the second day (aquatic macro invertebrates, and leaf packs) seemed to be everyone’s favorite activity.

David and Tara explaining the importance of sifting leaf packs in search of aquatic macro invertebrates. Photo by, Erin Engbeck

David and Tara explaining the importance of sifting leaf packs in search of aquatic macro invertebrates. Photo by, Erin Engbeck

We are very pleased that the community showed great interest in this project and would like to thank them for their participation. As part of the Rios Saludables program, we are compiling lists of schools, and other communities who are interested in participating and contributing to the program throughout the Osa peninsula. In the continuing work with surrounding communities we will be relying on them to take the lead in data collection, and hope that this empowers the community to be the first responders when water quality concerns are raised.

Community members proudly showing off their certificates for successfully completing the workshop. Photo by, Erin Engbeck

Community members proudly showing off their certificates for successfully completing the workshop. Photo by, Erin Engbeck

 

Community members and Rios Saludables Staff after a interesting and fun filled day of leaf packs

Community members and Rios Saludables Staff after a interesting and fun filled day of leaf packs

Community Outreach, Environmental Education

Mammal Monitoring Projects- From Costa Rica to USA

Juan Carlos Cruz Diaz, Osa Conservation’s Wild Cat Program Coordinator, made a trip up to Westchester County in New York this year to visit Larry Regan and his son Jeremy Regan. The purpose of the visit was to check up on Jeremy and his camera trap mammal monitoring project that he had decided to introduce right in Westchester’s back yard.

Juan Carlos and Jeremy pose in front of a camera trap.

Juan Carlos and Jeremy pose in front of a camera trap.

Like father like son – Larry Regan donated the first cameras that spearheaded Osa Conservation’s monitoring projects in 2012, and now his son Jeremy, only 16, is involved in a monitoring project of his own. It is everyone’s anticipation that this project will inspire other teens to begin similar conservation projects in their neighborhoods and towns.

Two male deers fight for territory.

Two male deers fight for territory.

This hawk exhibits rare behavior on the ground just long enough to get caught on camera!

This hawk exhibits rare behavior on the ground just long enough to get caught on camera!

A close-up of a coyote slinking around.

A close-up of a coyote slinking around.

Another coyote caught in action.

The same coyote as pictured above sniffing around.