Aquatic Health, Volunteers and Visitors

Pumas en el sendero

Blog por Lucía Vargas Araya, Coordinadora de Experiencia de Conservación.

La autora Lucía Vargas Araya disfruta de la búsqueda de vida silvestre en el sendero. Photo: Laurien Dwars

“Hay dos pumas en el sendero”- me dijo mi compañero Leiner por un mensaje que recibí estando sentada en mi oficina en la Estación Biológica Osa Verde el otro día. Emocionada, le avisé a los compañeros que estaban cerca mío, nos pusimos zapatos y salimos rápidamente hacia El Sendero Las Tortugas, donde esperábamos encontrar a los felinos.

La entrada del sendero está justo al costado de La Estación y continúa hasta llegar a Playa Piro. Como Leiner no especificó en qué parte del sendero estaban los animales, desde que entramos al mismo y nos encontramos rodeados del bosque, el corazón latía fuerte; podían estar ahí camuflados detrás de cualquier árbol.

Rayos de luz solar caen en el camino cerca de la estación de investigación. Foto: Lucia Vargas Araya

Continuamos a un punto del sendero donde se debe de cruzar el Río Piro y entonces, el suspenso aumentó. Caminaba poniendo mucha atención a mi alrededor, cerca y hacia la distancia, tratando de detectar a los pumas, pero también viendo el barro que pisaba para no resbalarme.

Quienes estábamos en búsqueda de los pumas, íbamos con los ojos alertas y nos hablábamos en un tono muy bajo, casi como un susurro, para no espantar la ilusión de verlos de cerca. Continuamos el sendero, paralelo al río, hasta llegar a un cruce. ¿Cuál camino debíamos escoger? Ahí nos quedamos unos segundos hasta que decidimos tomar el de la izquierda, el que se aproxima al vivero de huevos de tortuga en Playa Piro. Nuestro caminar se volvió más pausado y esperamos a que Leiner respondiera el celular para saber si aún teníamos esperanza, pero no respondió.

Finalmente, nos topamos con quienes habían tenido la oportunidad de verlos y nos dijeron que ya los habían perdido de vista, se habían ido. Sin embargo, se sabía que estaban cerca porque escuchábamos aún el aullido típico de un mono que está observando a su potencial depredador.

Sereno Río Piro, el río que pasa por la estación de investigación. Photo: Lucia Vargas Araya

Esa tarde no encontré al puma, pero sentí una profunda gratitud de que el bosque de Osa se hubiera convertido en mi nuevo hogar. En este rincón palpitante de vida las posibilidades son infinitas. Aquí cada día estamos a la merced de la naturaleza; cada día puedo ver algo que nunca había visto antes. Y, además, aquí todos los días aprendo.

Esa tarde tuve una excusa para distraerme en el bosque y visitar el río Piro un rato. Además, iba en compañía de espíritus aventureros, que luchan por proteger lo que aman: la naturaleza; de la cual son parte. 

Land Conservation and Forest Restoration, Science and Research, Uncategorized

Variety is the spice of life: Monitoring the wildlife in our ecological restoration and rewilding plots

Blogpost by Alice Connell, Restoration and Rewilding Research Field Assistant

Alice monitoring the effectiveness of log piles in attracting amphibian and reptile species to the restoration and rewilding plots. Photo: Sophie Blow

My work is never the same from one day to the next on the Restoration and Rewilding Program, which encompasses many diverse projects that require frequent monitoring. There is plenty to do, I always arrive at lunch hungry and satisfied after mornings of hard work. I want to give you an insight into my first month of being a Restoration and Rewilding Research Field Assistant.

We are employing a variety of approaches and techniques across the rewilding plots in order to “rewild” an array of animals to return to recently reforested abandoned grassland. Our idea is that as the overall species diversity increases, inter- and intra-species interactions within the regenerating areas will begin to re-establish. With some patience and continuous monitoring, we the aim to demonstrate a restored harmonic ecosystem functioning of the Osa Peninsula, and its associated key ecosystem services.

A medium bird box installed to offer shelter for birds. Photo: Alice Connell

One project in the restoration plots is the installation of nesting and roosting boxes to attract birds and bats. To accommodate a variety of species, there are 5 bird box designs, each differing in dimension of the entry hole and the box itself. The frugivorous species belonging to both birds and bats play a vital role in increasing the rate of seed rain, and consequently, the rate of seed dispersal and reforestation.

One day of my week is dedicated to surveying the wonderfully diverse bats that are choosing to use the rewilding plots. The morning’s duty involves erecting mist nets in preparation for the evening’s bat survey. Come the evening time, the team heads back out into the field to open the nets. When the clock strikes six, the monitoring begins, and the excitement of the possibility of catching a new species record ripples through the team.

The species, Micronycteris hirsuta, was recently caught for the first time in one of the rewilding plots. Photo: Alice Connell

The following morning, decaying log piles and epiphytes (such as bromeliads) are translocated to the rewilding plots to increase microhabitat availability, in an effort to rewild amphibians and reptiles. Such microhabitats occur naturally in the primary forests, usually providing refuge for different invertebrates, such as centipedes and millipedes, and for amphibians and reptiles, such as leaf-litter frogs and sun-basking lizards. It is always a pleasure to find a fer-de-lance coiled peacefully within a log pile in a rewilding plot. While the log pile project is relatively new, we have already observed a rapid return and colonization of several amphibian and reptile species within a short period of time, which is highly encouraging.

Undeniably, a huge effort, in terms of time and determination, is required to create a biodiverse and ecologically restored forest ecosystem. Fortunately, the team of highly-motivated and enthusiastic people that constitute the Restoration and Rewilding Program indicates a promising future for Osa’s forests.

A fer-de-lance coiled peacefully within a log pile in a rewilding plot. Photo: Alice Connell

Science and Research

Massive treefrog breeding aggregations at Shampoo Pond

Blog Post by Brandon André Güell, NSF Pre-doctoral Fellow and Ph.D. Student, Warkentin Lab, Boston University

Brandon Güell observing a breeding aggregation at Shampoo Pond. Photo: Brandon Güell

It was about 06:00 after night-long heavy rains ended a short dry spell, and already you could hear a deafening chorus of creatures gathering at the pond. Though sleepless and mosquito-ridden, we trudged chest-deep through the murky swamp waters with notebook and camera in hand to reach the source of the chaos. That’s when we saw it: One of the largest aggregations of treefrogs likely ever to be witnessed.

Tens of thousands of adult gliding treefrogs (Agalychnis spurrelli) literally poured over each other in attempt to breed and lay eggs. And for two Costa Rican tropical biologists and herpetologists, this rare biblical magnitude of frogs was like heaven on earth. This is Costa Rica. This is Osa. This is “Shampoo Pond”.

Agalychnis spurrelli breeding aggregation on palm leaf at Shampoo Pond. Photo: Brandon Güell

 

Since 2015, I have been studying how frog embryos use environmental cues to change their behavior. My current Ph.D. research in the Osa aims to understand how specific reproductive strategies interact with both environmental cues and development to affect embryo behavior and survival. For these gliding treefrogs, tens of thousands of reproducing adult frogs mean hundreds of thousands of frog eggs and embryos. And in this species, embryos are left alone to fend for themselves after they are laid. That means this event leaves behind a massive all you can eat frog-egg buffet for hungry predators

Why have a massive population lay their helpless eggs all at once in one location? That’s a great question, and it’s one I hope to answer!

In some cases, an overwhelming amount of prey can function as an antipredator adaptation if, for example, the overabundance of frog eggs decreases the probability of any one egg’s chance of being eaten. Basically, it can serve as a form of “safety in numbers”. This is known as predator swamping (or predator satiation). Shampoo Pond offers a pristine ecosystem where this hypothesis can be tested using these treefrogs.

In 2018, with the assistance of Katherine González, a Costa Rican tropical biologist, we conducted initial egg clutch monitoring studies in the hopes of determining whether this reproductive strategy has any impact on offspring survival. But this system has even more to it!

If undisturbed, gliding treefrog embryos develop and hatch into the pond as tadpoles in 6 days. But with so many threats, many wouldn’t survive that long.

Brandon Güell and Katherine Gonzalez headed out to the field from the research station. Photo: Brandon Güell

How can frog heaven get any more interesting, you say? Well, what makes these treefrogs particularly interesting is their ability to respond to threats by hatching prematurely!

That’s right! These embryos can hatch almost 40% early to escape the jaws of a hungry predator like snakes, wasps, and even monkeys! However, many of them don’t hatch early, and thus will die during predator attacks. We know the embryos have the ability to hatch early, but sometimes they don’t. Why?!

In addition to predation, these embryos are susceptible to desiccation, fungal infection, and flooding. These threats provide unique cues, which the embryos use to inform their decision of when best to hatch. This is called environmentally cued hatching, and it’s presumable a very adaptive embryo behavior— it increases their survival and fitness. But for the gliding treefrog, this behavior may not be as plastic or adaptive as in other species. Here in the Osa, another focus of my research is understanding the mechanisms which cause these embryos to hatch or not to hatch in these contexts at different developmental stages.

Our work has only begun at Shampoo Pond, and we hope that it will elucidate the conservation importance of this fragile ecosystem and its inhabitants, particularly amidst the current anthropogenic environmental changes in Neotropical rainforests.

 

Above: A series of gliding treefrog (Agalychnis spurrelli) embryo developmental stages. After embryos undergo early and late cleavages (cell divisions with visible nuclei), they form the dorsal lip and the yolk plug becomes visible. Later, embryo bodies rise and begin to show muscular response as the external gills form. Then, their hearts begin to pump blood throughout the body and external gills, and they begin to develop pigmentation. At three and four days, embryos begin to respond to environmental cues and can hatch prematurely to escape flooding and predators respectively. In the last picture, Brandon collects eggs in the swamp to study. 

 

Land Conservation and Forest Restoration, Science and Research

Restoration’s exciting night life

Blog Post by Elène Haave Audet, Restoration and Rewilding Research Field Assistant

 

Elène holding a Noctilio leporinus, the Greater bulldog bat, which fishes from streams. Photo: Doris Audet

For many of us, the creatures of the tropical forest that dare venture at night remain elusive and mysterious beings, their ways of life foreign to us daytime dwellers. Among these enigmatic animals are bats, the group of mammals with the second largest number of species in the world, whose charismatic presence in the tropics will not go un-noticed to the keen nocturnal observer.

Like many sensitive animals, bats are particularly special as a group, since many species require natural areas that have not been disturbed by human activity to find food and places to live. Thus, the presence of many different bat species can provide information about the health of an area. For this reason, Osa Conservation has started sampling the diversity of bats in areas that are being actively restored into forest, after years of use by humans. Overtime, the presence of different types of bats in these areas will help determine the success of restoration.

Vampyrodes caracciolli, the Great striped-faced bat, the second of two new fruit eating bats on the OC property, enjoying a well- deserved fig. Photo: Hilary Brumberg

After seeing the restoration plots for the first time this May, I was convinced that the bat diversity in these areas would not be exciting: that is, I expected to find very little diversity, since the restoration areas are in their infancy and have very little forest cover.

Was I ever wrong! The bat life in the restoration plots is teaming with diversity. After four months of sampling, we have recorded 24 different species of bats, ranging from those that eat insects, fruits, nectar, fish, and yes, even blood. To add to this excitement, two species of fruit eating bats recorded in the restoration areas had not been previously detected on the Osa Conservation property!

Why, then, has the bat nightlife been much more exciting than anticipated? Although the restoration areas have very few trees, the surrounding areas are lush with tropical forest, providing ideal habitat for these endearing creatures. This is very encouraging news for restoration initiatives, as connecting the surrounding forests with restored habitats will continue to support the diverse lifestyles of our nocturnal friends, so they may continue hunting insects, fishing bats, and snacking on figs.

Now every night of sampling is an adventure, and I cannot wait to see what other bats we will encounter in these deceptively rich areas!

Chiroderma villosum, the Hairy big-eyed bat, one of two new fruit eating bats encountered on OC property, posing handsomely. Photo: Elene Haave Audet

 

Aquatic Health, Community Outreach, Uncategorized

Rios Saludables First Workshop in Colegio Puerto Jimenez

Blogpost by Hilary Brumberg, Ríos Saludables Program Coordinator 

Students in bright blue uniforms dip nets into a small stream and retrieve soggy masses of leaves, branches, rocks, and candy wrappers. They comb through the leaves with plastic spoons, and excitedly pluck small insects and crustaceans from the foliage and place them into the stream water filled ice cube tray  – our fancy specimen holder.

The students rush the specimens over to our identification station, a tree stump bearing a laminated booklet with dozens of pictures of aquatic critters. They methodically scan each page of the identification guide, enthusiastically pointing at pictures that look like their specimens. When these young scientists finally decide on the identity of the critter swimming around their tray, they return their specimen to the stream and begin fishing again. Other groups of teenagers wander around the stream in pursuit of litter, tossing snack wrappers in black trash bags to help clean the streams.

Students identifying macroinvertebrates

Students identifying macro invertebrates

These students attend Colegio Industrial Técnico Puerto Jiménez, one of two secondary schools on the Osa Peninsula and the closest one to our biological station. In the yard behind their school is Cacao Stream.  Students usually eat lunch alongside the stream, and often snack wrappers mysteriously make their way into the stream.

Today, these students are surveying the stream for macroinvertebrates, mini mighty organisms that are bio-indicators for river health. Many of the students had never thought twice about Cacao Stream, let alone the crustaceans and insects that call it home.

A group of students measuring the water

A group of students measuring the stream quality

This field activity is part of Rios Saludables’ first ever workshop with the Colegio Puerto Jiménez. Before heading to the stream to sample, I began the workshop with a presentation, assisted by one of the program’s community partners.

We discussed the importance of water and specifically rivers for nature and humans. Reasons they suggested included sources of drinking water, important ecological habitat, and nutrient transport.

One of my favorite parts of these presentations is to show a map of Osa’s expansive freshwater network. Rivers and streams expand like a spider web across the peninsula in every direction. Students always gasp when the map is projected, because they realize the extent that the peninsula’s ecosystems rely on rivers.

Hillary and some of the students

Hilary & students analyze their collections

A trademark Rios Saludables saying is “the problem with water on the Osa is not quantity, but rather quality.” This leads nicely into an explanation of the ways we determine water quality, namely water chemistry tests and macroinvertebrate surveys. These students had recently learned about pH and alkalinity  in their chemistry class, and I described what ranges indicate that a river is healthy. Then I passed around samples of macroinvertebrates I collected with community partners across the region, many from rivers close to students’ homes.

Now it is time for these newly ordained freshwater ecologists to head to Cacao Stream to practice these surveys.

Aquatic Health, Marine Conservation

Aquaculture: A Sustainable Solution to the Global Seafood Crisis?

By: Clara Gomez

The world’s seafood stocks will have completely collapsed by the year 2050, scientists say.  According to a study done by a group of economists and ecologists, the growth of the human population combined with unsustainable fishing practices and the devastating loss of biodiversity will lead to the collapse of fish populations in the next 35 years, if trends continue on their current path.

If the idea of losing all of the world’s fish scares you as much as it scares me, then you’re wondering how we disrupt the current “trend” of unsustainable overfishing.  One option is through the use of aquaculture.  Aquaculture, also known as fish or shellfish farming refers to the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of plants and animals of water environments including ponds, rivers, lakes and the ocean.  

Although the global community is just beginning to think of aquaculture as a potential solution to the dilemma of depleted oceans, the fact is that it’s not a new practice. In fact, although historians say that the cradle of aquaculture existed in China 4,000 years ago, recent archaeological evidence (2003) suggests that the Gunditjmara tribe of Australia already had a system to raise and cultivate eels in in the southeast of the country 8,000 years ago.  The system was so efficient (after being designed as an alternative method for procuring food) that traditional practices remained stable throughout history!! Or at least not until Stephan Ludwig Jacobi appeared on the scene, at some point in the early XVIII century.

Thanks to Jacobi and his article ‘Von der künstlichen Erzeugung der Forellen und Lachse’, aquaculture became a part of mainstream science due to the success based off of his experiments in the external fertilization of trout and salmon. Not only in terms of self-sustainability, but also of commerce at an industrial level. From then on all manner of projects and investments began, and thus was born the second generation of aquaculture─ the modern aquaculture we all know today, and which is currently reinventing itself to adapt to a society increasingly aware of its impact on the environment.

Part of this shift in the way aquaculture utilized is the utilization of what’s called Integrated, multi-trophic aquaculture.  While it sounds complicated, it’s an idea that involves the raising of diverse organisms within the same farming system, where each species utilizes a distinct niche and distinct resources within the farming complex.  This allows the fish to be raised in a much more biodiverse, nature-like setting. Additionally, this system utilizes a circular economy–the idea that the waste from one product serves as nutrients for another.  So, raising plants and fish together both cuts down on cost and waste. This current of change, in conjunction with the holistic approach that Osa Conservation has in regards to conservation, is what prompted the organization to plan the future fusion between a multi-trophic aquaculture project (still in development), and its already successful sustainable agriculture program. A large number of scientific publications (many published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) support these projects, and the tropical climate of Costa Rica is perfect for local breeding of sea creatures.  What’s the harm in trying?aquaculture, circular economy

If successful, this new project of integrated, multi trophic aquaculture would be extremely beneficial in the following three areas:

Ecology:

The integrated, multi-trophic aquaculture system mimics the relationships among organisms in the natural world (not just by raising aquatic organisms and terrestrial plants together, but also by using one organism’s waste as input for others).  It also ensures both the optimal use of resources and the reduction of water pollution and eutrophication levels.

Economy:

This new and improved system of aquaculture represents a positive step towards the self-sufficiency of Osa Conservation, and as such also represents a reduction of costs in terms of food imports from San Jose. Likewise, the implementation of a new food cultivation system could mean new employment opportunities for locals.

Pedagogy:

Not only is the integrated, multi-trophic aquaculture system is easy to understand, but it has the potential  to include human waste as part of its cycle. That means that both the system’s facilities (eg tanks external fertilization, duck ponds, rice fields, etc) as food produced through it (eg shrimp species, and native fish) have potential to serve as educational material for both the local community and visitors of Osa. What better way is there to learn about aquaculture, than to see how everything works and then personally taste the final product?  Adopting a system of aquaculture in the Osa will allow OC to expand upon its teaching capacity and further embody its own standards of sustainability.  

 

Sources

1.“Aborigines may have farmed eels, built huts” ABC Science Australia:http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s806276.htm

2.“Analysis of the Aquaculture Market in the Costa Rican Metropolitan Area. Instituto Costarricense de Pesca y Acuicultura (2010): https://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-121410-115309/unrestricted/Analysis_of_the_Aquaculture_Market_in_the_Costa_Rican_Metropolitan_Area.pdf

  1. “At a Crossroads: Will Aquaculture Fulfill thePromise of the Blue Revolution?” (SeaWeb Aquaculture Clearinghouse report, PDF): http://www.seaweb.org/resources/documents/reports_crossroads.pdf
  2. “Biomass Accumulation and Water Purification of Water Spinach Planted on Water Surface by Floating Beds for Treating Biogas Slurry”Journal of Environmental Protection (2013, PDF): http://file.scirp.org/pdf/JEP_2013111911133739.pdf

5.“Contribución de la pesca y la acuicultura a la seguridad alimentaria y el ingreso familiar en Centroamérica” Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación — FAO  (2014,PDF): http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3757s.pdf

6.“Culture of Fish in Rice Fields” (FAO, WorldFish Center. 2014) PDF:http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/a0823e/a0823e.pdf

7.“History of Agriculture” FAO Corporate Document Repository. http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/009/ag158e/AG158E01.htm

  1. FAO “Animal-Fish Systems: Integrated Fish-duck farming”

    http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y1187E/y1187e14.htm

9.“Food from the sea. Remarkable results of the experiments in cod and lobster,(Pittsburgh Dispatch. aquaculture, 1890): https://www.newspapers.com/clip/3798097/food_from_the_sea_remarkable_results/

  1. Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture: What it is, and why you should care…..

and don’t confuse it with polyculture. (2006, PDF): http://www2.unb.ca/chopinlab/articles/files/Northern%20Aquaculture%20IMTA%20July%2006.pdf

11.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Atmenistration (NOAA): http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/aquaculture/what_is_aquaculture.html

  1. All Seafood Will Run Out in 2050, scientists Say (Charles Clover, 2006)

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1533125/All-seafood-will-run-out-in-2050-say-scientists.html

Marine Conservation, Science and Research, Sea Turtles

La Vida en el Paraiso

Written by: Sukee Bennett

There’s something about measuring squirming sea turtle hatchlings that automatically puts a smile on my face. But this batch of babies was extra special. They were from a nest that I relocated on my very first patrol on Piro, way back in the beginning of September. A little over fifty days later, and the ping-pong shaped eggs I once placed in a bucket and buried in the hatchery had resulted in one hundred flipper-flapping babies. I was enthralled.

sea turtle 1Flash-forward two hours later, when my fellow Research Assistant Erin and I were leaning against a palm tree outside of our vivero de tortugas marinas (sea turtle hatchery) and reading. We were waiting on the arrival of a large group of college students and Osa Conservation employees to help us liberate our new hatchlings before sunset. As Casey (the other Sea Turtle Research Assistant in our group of three) whistled, I craned my neck around to say hello. But to my surprise, Casey wasn’t the only one demanding attention. A female Olive Ridley (Lora) was slowly hauling her body up the sandy embankment in front of me to lay her eggs. It looked as if she was using her two not-so-terrestrial but powerful front flippers to head directly to where I sat, which also happened to be directly in front of our hatchery. And it was 4:00 in the afternoon.

Olive Ridleys are in fact known to lay eggs during daylight, but typically in large groups called arribadas (meaning “the arrival” to the people where this phenomenon occurs). However, arribadas do not occur on Piro, or anywhere on the Osa for that matter. The female in front of us was clearly alone.

sea turtle 2Fifteen minutes later, she was hard at work digging her nesting hole, and the rest of our party had arrived to share in this incredibly rare and special moment. Afterwards, over three hundred babies released from our hatchery scrambled across the sand, parallel with the tracks our afternoon visitor had left. They safely entered the waves, illuminated by the setting sun.

sea turtle 3Just a few nights ago, we had another visitor at the hatchery. She was much larger and slightly more ornate; a Green turtle (Verde). And rather than having the light from a setting sun framing her, we had one of the clearest nights I have ever witnessed. Countless constellations blanketed the sky, adorned with the occasional shooting star. As we walked in the sand, the pressure from our bare feet sparked a bioluminescent lightshow: blue, fluorescent, and sparkling. I grew tired as we waited for the Green to dig her nest, but I hardly dared to close my eyes in fear of missing something.

I have less than a week left here now, but moments like these will stay with me for a lifetime. Working in sea turtle conservation is a grand privilege within itself, but there truly is no other place like the Osa.

Science and Research

Stick Insects in the Osa

 

Male of Calynda coronata

In early November 2015 we traveled to Osa in order to research the stick insect fauna of the Peninsula. It was due to the kindness of Max Villalobos, the Operations Manager of Osa Conservation, that we were allowed to search and collect in the Osa Conservation area.

 

Stick Insects (Phasmatodea) can be found in Costa Rica with 3000 species currently known in the tropics around the world.  They are herbivores and well-known for resembling twigs or branches. Therefore, they have great camouflage.  Brightly colored and well-flying winged insects also can be classified as Stick Insects. Stick Insects represent the world’s longest known insects, the largest of all being a Bornean species that measures 56.7 cm from the tips of the fore-legs to the tip of the abdomen. Some 60 species have so far been reported from Costa Rica, but the actual number of species occurring throughout the country is estimated to be much higher.

Spectacular startle display of a female Metriophasma diocles

Due to their good camouflage Stick Insects are most easily found during the night by searching the lower vegetation with torch lights. This method makes the insects easy to spot and often good numbers can be found with rich and diverse low vegetation throughout most of Costa Rica. Rainfalls during the afternoon or early evening usually increase the number of specimens encountered. Most species are night-active and start feeding shortly after dawn.

While only on Osa for eight days we have unfortunately chosen a fairly bad time. The strong El Niño in 2015 has caused a massive decrease of rainfalls in this particular area during the past months and our observations right away showed low numbers of insects. Only few specimens were seen, which was very disappointing for our studies. Almost all of the species observed were common ones, that also occur in other regions of Costa Rica. The most abundant species in the Osa Conservation area were the orange-winged Pseudophasma unicolor and the slender, wingless Calynda coronata.

Mating couple of Calynda coronata – females are either green or brown and bear crown-like spines on their head

Mating couple of Calynda coronata – females are either green or brown and bear crown-like spines on their head

Most of Osa Peninsula and the area of Osa Conservation represent perfect habitats for a diverse stick insect fauna and – mostly based on museum specimens – we know that there are many other species on Osa, but which we were not able to find. The very low abundance of these insects caused by El Niño during our stay in Osa has unfortunately not contributed much to our project, which is a forthcoming book on the stick insects of Costa Rica. Hence, we shall like to encourage all of you to look out for stick insects during your studies at Osa Conservation. Any information, records or photos are helpful and welcome. We will be very grateful for any support! Thank you!

Feel free to contact Frank and Oskar. Just have a look at: www.Phasmatodea.com

Research conducted by: Frank Hennemann, Oskar Conle, Kenji Nishida & Yeisson Gutiérrez

Environmental Education, Miscellaneous, Science and Research, Volunteers and Visitors

A little luck and a fun(gi) story

Read about Grace Leppink’s experience in the Osa as she makes exciting fungi discoveries!

Fungi are found throughout the world, but some of the most amazing and diverse fungi are found in Costa Rica.  The combination of deeply shaded forests and a warm, humid climate makes Costa Rica the perfect incubator for fungi.  As a new mycologist, the opportunity to travel to Costa Rica was one that I could not pass up.  On my first day at the Piro Research Station I had an exciting and lucky encounter with fungi.

fungus

Staheliomyces cincta, fresh and erect.

We were in the thick of the forest on the Ajo Trail. As we rounded the corner we found our prey under the canopy of a giant tree. The intricate lacework of its body was accented by the few rays of light the canopy allowed through.  We had come across a stunning specimen – the strangled stinkhorn, Staheliomyces cinctus.  When I first laid my eyes on it, it seemed out of place compared to the brown and green hues surrounding it.  This white alien shape seemed to protrude out of nowhere, like some weird organic artifact. As my professor joked later, it was the best accessorized fungi he had ever met, as it wore a thick shiny black belt – of slime containing its spores.

 

collapsing fungi

Same fungus, same day. Starting to collapse! It was undetectable a day later.

This stinkhorn is uncommon and not well documented. One reason is due to the short time that the fruiting body exists.  The structure rarely lasts more than a day before turning into messy lump of black goo.  If my group had not gone out to that trail on that morning we might only have found a shriveled shadow of its former glory.

In the following weeks I hope to continue my documentation of the fantastic fungi by looking at the secondary and primary forests of the OSA peninsula!

 

Aquatic Health, Environmental Education, Marine Conservation, Sea Turtles, Volunteers and Visitors

The Future of Sea Turtles

turtle picture

The fluttering of papery wings; back and forth, back and forth. They open and close their tiny mouths. Nocturnal hungry bats, paired with the incessant whir of cicada wings and the low, ominous drone of Howler monkeys are the evening calls of the Osa. These sounds signify the awakening of all things that dwell in the night. Usually, it also signifies our bedtime; unless it’s an evening of turtle patrol.

When I took herpetology as a senior in college three years ago, my professor used to joke that, “Herpetologists are the night-owls and ornithologists are the morning people”. But, working with sea turtles breaks the mold. Sometimes, we rise at 3:30am. Donning our headlamps, we make our way down the winding forested trail to Piro or Pejeperro Beach, and scout for turtle tracks and hatchlings as the sun paints purple and pink ribbons across the sky. Sometimes, we have to sip on coffee (like the local Ticos do) post-dinner to keep us from falling asleep before a night patrol. Patrols typically begin at 8:30pm and can last beyond 1:00am. In my three weeks of being here, I’ve seen five Loras (Olive ridleys) and two Verdes (Greens) gingerly crawl from the surf to lay their eggs. I’ve measured their shells and tagged their flippers . And just last night, we saw a white light flashing ever closer to us on Piro—a sign of poachers. We had to abandon patrol.baby turtle

Poaching of turtle eggs is a sad reality here in Costa Rica. For many, it’s a feasible way to make a living and support a family. But through education, the next generation can learn the importance of conserving their country’s already threatened sea turtle species.

As a sea turtle Research Field Assistant, my main responsibilities are conducting patrols, maintaining the hatchery, and providing a steady presence on the beach. But the Carate Sea Turtle Festival last Saturday reminded me of my experience with outreach education. The enthusiasm and receptivity of the children around me was incredible, whether they be Spanish speaking locals or English speaking visitors. All partook in eagerly picking up and exploring local invertebrates with spoons and forceps, and dashing around the beach like a mother turtle (but a little faster). They learned what sea turtles eat (seagrasses, sponges, jellies, ect.), what they accidentally eat (plastic), and how we can keep plastics out of our ocean by using reusable alternatives. Later, we danced to a local band that sang songs about el bosque and la playa and the animals that call them home. Mid-dance, I helped a local toddler collect hermit crabs in a bucket. It didn’t matter that I hardly speak Spanish; our enthusiasm spoke for us. I can only hope that every child I met in Carate shared a similar enthusiasm and will remember the day we celebrated sea turtles, for their future is in all of our hands.

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